After some recent additions to the Skyward Sword website, fans dug deep into it and were able to uncover a new map of the world of Skyward Sword. This appears to simply be the western half, without any names on the individual places themselves.
Hit the jump for the picture of the map itself, as well as my thoughts. Both the map and my thoughts could contain potential spoilers, so read and look at your own risk.
The area in the bottom left, to me, appears to resemble both Kakariko Village and Gerudo Desert from Twilight Princess. Due to the barren, broken look to the area as well as the yellow desert dominating the left, one could see connections to Kakariko Village from Twilight Princess, or even Colossus Desert and the Haunted Wasteland from Ocarina of Time.
The top area of the map sticks out to me as heavily resembling Death Mountain, both from Ocarina of Time, and Twilight Princess.
The bottom right area most closely resembles the Lost Woods from Ocarina of Time and Four Swords Adventures, Kokiri Forest from Ocarina of Time, Faron Woods from Twilight Princess, and even Lake Hylia from Ocarina of Time and Twilight Princess. It appears to be a large mix of every forest seen in the Zelda series. There is also a rather large tree near the centre of the forest, suggesting the existence of the Deku Tree from Kokiri Forest.
Those are just my thoughts. Do with them what you will.